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时间:2023-11-29 00:25编辑:admin来源:one体育地址当前位置:主页 > one体育地址花卉大全 > 水生植物 >
本文摘要:Nothing captures how fashionable the startup has become quite like crowdfunding. The craze for raising contributions via websites like Kickstarter and Indiegogo is helping to launch companies from scooter manufacturers to lightbulb vendors


Nothing captures how fashionable the startup has become quite like crowdfunding. The craze for raising contributions via websites like Kickstarter and Indiegogo is helping to launch companies from scooter manufacturers to lightbulb vendors to filmmakers.没什么比众筹更加能解释创业的疯狂了。很多人可怕地通过Kickstarter和Indiegogo等网站资助别人做创业,拒绝接受资助的企业有中既有做到脚踏车的,也有做到电灯泡的,甚至还有拍电影的。Now, even nuclear fusion is game.现在,就连研究核聚变的都上了这条船。

Yes, the Holy Grail of cheap, clean, safe, plentiful, low-carbon energy that has remained 40 years in the future since scientists proposed it over half a century ago has entered the crowdsourcing era. International government projects like ITER in France and the National Ignition Facility in California may have spent billions of dollars in pursuit of the technology, but that doesn’t mean there can’t be a little grassroots action, too.核能由于具备廉价、洗手、安全性、低碳、用之不竭的特点而被喻为能源中的“圣杯”。自从半个多世纪前,科学家们明确提出利用核能的设想以来,有40多年的时间里,核能在我们眼中或许都是未来才能享用到的福利。如今这种“矮小上”的能源也再一转入了众包时代。虽然有些核能项目以致于要花费几十亿美元,比如法国的国际热核实验反应堆(ITER)和美国加州的美国国家点火装置(National Ignition Facility),但是这并不意味著在核能领域就几乎没草根阶层可以施展拳脚的空间。

LPP Fusion, a tiny company based in Middlesex, N.J., launched in May an Indiegogo campaign to raise $200,000—loose change in this business—that it believes will help it reach a major fusion development milestone in a year and commercialize fusion reactors by 2020.美国新泽西州米德尔塞克斯市的一家叫LPP Fusion的小公司今年五月在Indiegogo上发动了一项筹措20万美金的活动。虽然20万美金在这个行业里微乎其微,但这家公司坚信,这笔钱能协助它在一年之内已完成核聚变领域的一项具备里程碑意义的研究。

这样,到2020年,它的研究成果就可以转化成为核聚变反应堆。LPP (it stands for “Lawrenceville Plasma Physics“) is representative of a new class of companies emerging to address the world’s energy crisis: Nuclear startups. Dozens of small new reactor companies are either chasing the elusive fusion dream or pursuing fission designs that trump those on the market today. All are promising to deliver a knock-out blow to the carbon-intensive fossil fuels that bedevil the world with environmental impact and volatile geopolitics and economics. Many of these innovative firms are positioning their reactors not just for electricity, but also to provide clean heat for high temperature industrial processes and for water desalination.LPP公司(全名意为“劳伦斯维尔等离子物理公司”)代表了一群致力于解决问题全球能源问题的创业公司——即核能创业公司。现在有好几十家规模较小的新型反应堆公司要么在之后研究难懂的核聚变问题,要么在绞尽脑汁地设计高于市场现有方案的核裂变反应堆。

所有这些公司最后都想想一个“一鸣惊人”,完全代替给人类造成了愤恨的环境影响和地缘政治冲突的化石能源。很多创业公司的新型反应堆不仅致力于获取电力,还致力于为各种高温工业流程获取洗手的热能,以及用作海水淡化等造福人类的事业。While LPP might be the only crowdfunded member of the group, it is determined like its young peers to shake up the staid nuclear industry. Reactor designs have not fundamentally changed since utilities first connected fission machines to the grid in the 1950s, marking a conservatism that has mired nuclear in the era of black-and-white television while colorful possibilities abound. The startups aim to brighten the palette.尽管LPP有可能是核能创业公司中唯一一个靠众筹来纳资金的公司,但它也像它的小兄弟们一样,立志要把死气沉沉的核能行业煲得风生水起。


For LPP, that would mean not only delivering fusion—melding atoms together rather than fission’s waste-creating process of splitting them apart—but it would also eliminate the time-honored need for costly turbines and generators. Nuclear power, including most fusion concepts, functions mechanically the same way fossil fuel plants do by creating heat to produce steam to drive a turbine. LPP is working on a type of fusion called “aneutronic” that emits charged particles for electricity.对于LPP公司来说,这意味著它某种程度要研究出有高效率核聚变方案(而不是产生危害废物的核裂变反应),还要中止这个过程中历年来对于汽轮机和发电机的市场需求——核能(还包括大多数核聚变方案)的基本原理与化石燃料发电厂的原理是完全一致的,都是再行产生热能,然后产生蒸汽,然后驱动汽轮机发电。而LPP公司研究的一种核聚变形式又叫作“无中子核聚变”,可以获释带电粒子来发电。“The nuclear industry is stuck using the same method for making electricity that utilities have used since the days of Thomas Edison—generate heat to make steam to drive a turbine and generator,” says Eric Lerner, president of LPP Fusion. “We can change all that. We can convert energy directly into electricity and slash costs.”LPP Fusion公司总裁埃里克o纳那说道:“核能行业的发电方法还逗留在爱迪生那个时代——通过痉挛产生蒸汽来驱动汽轮机和发电机。而我们可以转变这一点,我们可以把能源必要改变为电能,同时大量缩减成本。

”First, he’ll need the $200,000 he seeks on Indiegogo (he has until July 5 to raise it), which would buy him some fancy new beryllium electrodes that would withstand rigors far better than the copper variety that LPP has been using. He hopes to install them by the end of this year in his experimental fusion reactor, which Lerner operates at the Friendly Storage premises in Middlesex, a place otherwise full of surplus boxes and furniture.首先,纳那必须在Indiegogo上筹措到20万美元,用来出售比LPP正在用于的铜电极更加能遭受极端情况考验的铍电极。纳那期望在年底前将铍电极加装在LPP那台试验性的核聚变反应堆上,这个反应堆设置在米德尔塞克斯市的一处库房里,那个地方原本塞满了箱子和家具。Lerner is boldly confident that the beryllium would by the middle of next year enable his lab to overcome the problem that has vexed fusion projects forever: It would harness more energy out of its reactor than what goes into it. Additional financing might then rush in. LPP will need $50 million in total, virtually nothing next to the nearly $18 billion that ITER has budgeted for only the next 10 years of an expected 30 years of construction and development of a 20-story “tokamak” facility.纳那坚信,在铍电极的协助下,到明年中旬,他的实验室将解决一个长久以来仍然后遗症着核聚变研究的难题,让我们从核聚变反应堆中取得的能源多达我们投放的用作熄灭反应堆的能源。


这样显然,LPP的5000万美金真是过于低廉了。With the financing, Lerner believes that by 2020 he could license the mass-production of small $300,000-to-$500,000 fusion machines—each the size of a one-car garage—with a capacity of 5 megawatts, enough to power 3,000 houses.纳那坚信,凭借这笔资金,到2020年的时候,他的公司将需要量产单价在30万到50万美元之间的小型核聚变发电机。每台这种发电机的尺寸只有一个停车位那么大,发电量超过500万瓦特,充足反对3000个家庭的用电量。

If only he had the wherewithal of rival fusion startup Tri-Alpha Energy, which has rounded up over $140 million from Goldman Sachs, Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen, and Russian state-owned company Rusnano, among others. Like LPP, Irvine, Calif.-based Tri-Alpha hopes to develop an aneutronic machine that delivers electricity without using turbines.惜LPP的后盾相比之下不及竞争对手Tri-Alpha能源公司。这家公司早已从高盛(Goldman Sachs)、微软公司(Microsoft)联合创始人保罗o艾伦、俄罗斯国有企业Rusnano等投资人处融到了1.4亿美元资金。


像LPP一样,这家坐落于加州尔湾市的核能创业公司也期望研发出有一台无中子核聚变发电机,从而不必须利用汽轮机也能发电。ITER and NIF, the government groups, are taking a more “conventional” fusion approach, aspiring to drive turbines with heat released by fusing isotopes of hydrogen. (In contrast, an aneutronic process tends to fuse standard hydrogen and boron.) So, too, are a number of startups that believe they can crack fusion long before the big science projects do by developing smaller machines (NIF’s facility is 3 football fields long and 10 stories tall) and deploying different technologies.ITER和NIF这两大政府机构则采行了更为“传统”的核聚变方案,也就是通过融合氢的同位素氘和氚和获释热量,从而驱动汽轮机发电。(相比之下,无中子核聚变偏向于将标准的氢与硼展开融合)。

此外还有一大批创业公司坚信,他们可以比这些举倾国之力的大科学项目提早研究出有高效率核聚变技术,并且研发出有小型的核聚变发电机(NIF的核聚变设施有3个足球场那么大,10层楼高)。“We liken it to the Human Genome Project or SpaceX, where large government programs were ultimately outrun by more nimble and more practical innovation in the private sector,” notes Nathan Gilliland, CEO of General Fusion near Vancouver, Canada. General Fusion has raised $32 million from sources including the Canadian oil company Cenovus and Jeff Bezos, Amazon’s chief executive.总部坐落于加拿大温哥华附近的标准化核聚变(General Fusion)公司的CEO南森o吉利兰德认为:“我们可以把它与人类基因组计划或太空探寻技术公司(Space X)做到一下较为,因为在后两者的领域中,大型政府性项目最后也是被私人领域的更加灵活性、更加简单的创意打破了。”标准化核聚变公司从加拿大石油公司Cenovus和亚马逊(Amazon)CEO杰夫o贝佐斯等投资人那里融得3200万美元资金。

As intriguing as fusion is, there is probably more startup activity in fission, where novel approaches promise great improvements over the industry’s addiction to fissioning solid uranium fuel rods then cooling and moderating them with water.虽然核聚变的前景十分诱人,但更加多的创业公司有可能活跃在核裂变领域,他们研究的一些新方法比行业现有的对铀燃料棒展开核裂变然后用水冷却、平稳的方法要先进设备得多。A host of startups are experimenting with different approaches including the use of liquid fuel, the use of solid fuel with different shapes (such as bricks or pebbles), and the use of alternative coolants and moderators such as salts and gases. Many of the designs draw on ideas that politics suppressed decades ago. Some, like Bill Gates-chaired TerraPower in Bellevue, Wash., are designing “fast reactors” that don’t moderate neutrons. Some envision using the element thorium instead of uranium.很多公司正在环绕新型的核裂变方法进行试验,比如用于液态燃料,或是用于有所不同形状的固态燃料(如砖型或卵型),以及用于盐或气体作为冷却剂与缓和剂等等。许多设计都吸取了几十年前不被政府容许的理念。比如由比尔o盖茨任董事长的泰拉能源公司(TerraPower)正在设计一种不必须对中子展开恶化的“较慢反应堆”。

有些公司则设想利用钍元素来替换铀作为核裂变燃料。Between them, they portend leaps in safety, cut way down on nuclear waste, use “waste” as fuel, minimize weapons proliferation risks, slash costs and tremendously boost efficiencies. Many fit the “small modular” form that enables mass production and affordable incremental power. (Oregon startup NuScale Power recently secured $217 million in federal funds to develop a small but comparatively conventional reactor.)很多创业公司的方案在提升核裂变安全性、大大减少核废料、逆“废物”为燃料、仅次于程度减少武器化风险、降低成本和提高效率方面都具备辽阔的前景。

许多方案都具备“小型模块化”的特征,需要符合量产和经济性发电的必须。(俄勒冈州的创业公司NuScale能源公司最近取得了2.17亿美元的联邦基金,用作研发一种小型的、但比较传统的核反应堆。)“There is a growing market pull for innovation in the nuclear space, so you’re beginning to see a blossoming of startup companies doing different things in nuclear,” says Simon Irish, CEO of startup Terrestrial Energy, Mississauga, Canada, which is developing a “molten salt” reactor (MSR) based on liquid fuel.加拿大米西索加市创业公司Terrestrial Energy的CEO西蒙o艾里什认为:“市场对核能领域创意的拉动力更加强劲。


In the U.S., Russ Wilcox, CEO of Cambridge, Mass.-based MSR developer Transatomic Power, implores the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to broaden its focus beyond conventional reactor safety, which he says “freezes progress.”在美国,总部坐落于马萨诸塞州剑桥市的MSR开发公司Transatomic Power首席执行官拉斯o威尔克斯正在催促美国核管理委员会(the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission)限制对传统核反应域安全性的容许,称之为这种容许“失效了变革”。Many observers believe that countries other than the U.S., such as Canada and China, will deploy first. Beijing is funding innovative Chinese fission projects, with collaboration from the U.S. DOE. Meanwhile, Western companies seek funds. Like Cenovus at General Fusion, more oil companies might pony up, because they want clean heat to process petroleum. As Fortune reported last month, a lack of industry funding appears to have slowed progress in DOE’s mission to develop an advanced reactor.许多仔细观察人士指出,除了美国之外,加拿大和中国等国有望沦为第一批部署新型核能技术的国家。


正如《财富》杂志上月报导的那样,由于缺少行业投资的缘故,美国能源部研发一个先进设备的核反应堆的计划或许早已上升。LPP Fusion doesn’t seem to be worried. For the young company, the next financing stage could simply be a matter of warming up the crowd.LPP的核聚变研究则或许不必担忧钱的事。